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ED 295 564 IR 013 105 



5 2 




Watson, Mary Ann 

"A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. 
Kennedy": An International Special Event. 
Jul 86 

18p.; Paper presented at the International Television 
Studies Conference (2nd, London, England, July 10-12, 

Historical Materials (060) — Speeches/Conference 
Papers (150) 

MF01/PC01 Plus Postage. 

♦Broadcast Industry; *Modern History; News Media; 
♦Presidents of the United States; ^Programing 
(Broadcast); Publicity; Public Officials; Television 
Research; Television Viewing 

*CBS Reports; Kennedy (John F); ^United States 


This critique of n A Tour of the White House with Mrs. 
John F. Kennedy, " a television program produced by CBS following 
completion of the White House restoration project to show the changes 
made, begins by discussing the relationships of the President and 
Mrs. Kennedy with the media, and the First Lady 9 s involvement in the 
restoration project. Additional background information is provided in 
descriptions of the pre-production planning; the on-location video 
production of the program itself; the President's appearance on the 
tour and his reaction to the unedited tapes; and the simultaneous 
telecast of the program by CBS and NBC — without commercial 
interruption — to about 46 million Americans on February 14, 1962. The 
rebroadcast of the program by some 14 foreign countries and requests 
for permission to service a print of ths show by 34 other countries 
are noted, as well as the reactions of the U.S. media critics, some 
of whom were less than enchanted with the First Lady's performance 
although the program was well received by the public. The critique 
concludes by placing the program in its historical perspective, 
commenting that, while the restored White House stands as an enduring 
legacy to the American people, the program which officially presented 
it co the public remains a monochrome memento of the New Frontier. 
(28 end notes). (CGD) 

************** vr ******************************************* 

* Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made * 

* from the original document. * 
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Office of Educational Research and Improvement 


, i- , ^This document has been reproduced as 

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C3 "A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy": 

%jU An International Special Event 

originating it 
□ Minor changes have been made tc improve 
reproduction quality 

• PomtSOf vieworOpinionsstatedmthiSdocu 
ment do not necessarily represent official 
OERi position or policy 


Mary Ann Watson 
Assistant Professor 
Department of Communication 
The Universitv of Michigan 


iA Robert Paterson 






^ Paper Presented to the 1986 International Television Studies Conference 


For most of us who remember him, memories of John Kennedy come 
back as monochrome images. His administration stands out in American 
history a conspicuously unique period bracketed by TV milestones. 
In the years between the "Great Debates" and the network coverage of 
President Kennedy's assassination and funeral, television assumed a 
truly central position in American life. In the early 1960s traditions 
were being established in the young medium. Our broadcast heritage 
blossomed as the presidency was being transformed. 

% The symbiotic bond between television and the occupant of the Oval 
Office was forever sealed during the Kennedy years. The telegenic new 
president's affinity for the medium altered the nature of the relationship 
between the public *and the Chief Executive. Live press conferences and 
conversational interviews bred an unprecedented sense of familiarity. As 
White House correspondent Hugh Sidey wrote of Kennedy's first year in 
office, "No official face has ever become so much a part of American 
consciousness. "^ 

The President, gifted with persuasiveness of speech and splendid 
self-assurance, was masterful in dealing television. His formidable 

charm was easily projected. He was at ease in front of the cameras. His 
wife was not. 

The enigmatic Jacqueline Kennedy, hard as she tried, could not avoid 
the glare of publicity. The First Lady was tenacious in safeguarding 
the privacy of her children and no one could find fault with her in this 
regard. Her reluctance, however, to accept dutifully for herself the role 
of a public figure was often a source of criticism from men and women of 
the press. Her reticence only fueled the curiosity of the hoi polloi. 

The worldwide fascination with Mrs. Kennedy reached its zenith in 
the spring of 1961 when she became the woman whom John Kennedy accompanied 


to Paris. The minutiae of her wardrobe and grooming captivated the 
public and news gatherers alike. 

As part of the Eyewitness to History series CL3 aired "Jackie f s 
Journey," a 30-minute program devoted to her dazzling impact on Europe. 
With surprisingly saccharine language, Walter Cronkite and Eric Sevareid 
attempted to put the Jackie phenomenon into perspective. 

The show included an interview with Mrs. Kennedy's Parisian hair- 
dresser, Alexander, who described his selection by Mrs. Kennedy as a 
"great honor." "At the same time," he added, "burdened me with a heavy 
responsibility." Using a model, the hairdresser explained his "great 
problem" was "to elongate the. head." "Before putting the chignon 
(artificial hairpiece) into place," he continued, "I lacquered the hairdo, 

thereby stabilizing it."^ Such tawdry coverage stiffened the First Lady f s 


resolve in what was called her "war of independence from the press." 

Jacqueline Kennedy's regal inwardness was not simply a reaction to 
the fishbowl existence of the White House. It was an integral part of 
her character. As a young girl, her father Jack Bouvier instilled in 
her the importance of reserve. She came to believe that aloofness, 
properly handled, was a highly desirable trait. One of Mrs. Kennedy's 

biographers writes of the prep school she attended, "An unwritten rule 


at Miss Porter's school was 'keep to yourself.'" Her college years, 
too, were marked by an enchanting mysteriousness. Long before she 
became Mrs. John F. Kennedy, the First Lady had learned to wield inaccess- 
ability skillfully. 

Mrs. Kennedy's famed White House Restoration Project took root on 
December 9, 1960, when Mrs. Eisenhower hosted an inspection tour for the 
soon-to-be tenant of the White House. It was the same day the President- 


elect T s wife was released from Georgetown Hospital after the birth 
of John F. Kennedy, Jr. Mrs. Kennedy reportedly cried upon leaving the 
mansion, distraught by what she had seen. United Press International 
(UPI) correspondent Helen Thomas recalled, "An aide told me later that 
Jackie thought the White House looked like a hotel that had been decor- 
ated by a wholesale furniture store during a January clearance.""* 

Jacqueline Kennedy's plan to make the White House a living symbol 
reflecting the pres _ncy of the United States was "no frivolous whim."*' 
After convincing her reluctant husband "by sheer dint of will"^ the 
worthiness of the project, she undertook the restoration with competent 
determination. A Fine Arts Committee was appointed to guide the work. 
A curator was hired. And the First Lady herself took charge of an 
expedition through fifty-four rooms in the White House and sixteen baths 
in search of forsaken historical treasures. , 

The aristocratic Mrs. Kennedy was doing what she truly loved to do. 

Shortly before his death Charles Collingwood, the CBS newsman who was 

selected to host the TV Tour of the White House, reflected on the First 

Lady ? s mission. It was an endeavor, he recalled, to which "she brought 

great taste, extensive expertise, a wide acquaintance among prospective 

donors and a highly developed capacity for persuasion ♦ I cannot emphasize 

enough how central this idea was among her concerns or how diligently and 


imaginatively she set to work on it. 

Jacqueline Kennedy was justifiably proud of what she had accom- 
plished. As the one-year, $2 million project drew to a close she edited 
the Historic Guide to the White House with photographs provided by the 
National Geographic Society. The souvenir guidebook, which sold for one 
dollar, generated even more public interest in her enterprise. A television 
program about the project was something simply waiting to happen. 


"I cannot remember whose specific idea the broadcast was," wrote 

Collingwood, "...but whosever inspiration it was, it was immediately 

seized upon by everyone at CBS.. ." In The Powers That Be David Halberstam 

writes -that the President himself suggested the idea and "easily talked 


CBS into doing a show with Jackie at the White House." The eventual 
producer of the "Tour," distinguished CBS documentarian Perry Wolff, 
remembered that NBC, too, was interested in producing such a program and 
was offering to shoot it in color, something CBS was not yet equipped 
to do. 1 ** But the program idea was presented to the First Lady by 
Blair Clark, the Vice-President of CBS News whose friendship with the 
President went back to their Harvard days when Clark was Chairman of the 
Crimson . 

During the six months of pre-production planning for the program 
Perry Wolff and director Franklin Schaffner had, said the producer, 
"almost no face to face contact with the President or Mrs. Kennedy." 
Four drafts of the program were prepared by Wolff. They were extensive 
outlines written in consultation with the Project staff. It was 
understood, however, that Mrs. Kennedy would put the information into 
her own words. 

The Kennedys spent the weekend before the January 15, 1962 video- 
taping at Glen Ora, the family retreat in Virginia, during which time 
nine tons of lights, cameras and cables were moved into the Executive 
Mansion and put into place by 54 technicians. Great pains were taken not 
to involve Mrs. Kennedy in the tedious logistical tasks of television 
production. The initial blocking for the various segments was worked 
out with the help of a model approximately the First Lady's size and coif fed 
in a "Jackie hairdo." 11 


Program material not involving Mrs. Kennedy and cutaway shots //ere 
videotaped in advance. The principal taping with the First Lady 
began around 11:00 a.m. on Monday and was finished a little after 7:00 
in the evening. The time was planned and used efficiently. M She was 
nervous," producer Wolff recalled about that production day, "It was 
exhausting. She drank a couple of scotches and was smoking Marlboros." 

In the early 1960 T s, on-location video production still involved the 
awkward use of heavy studio cameras. Lightweight electronic news- 
gathering equipment was yet a decade away. This cumbersome process was 
somewhat simplified, though, by the use of a battery-operated, wireless 
microphone. Mrs. Kennedy* s young press secretary, Pamela Turnure, was 
shown how to adjust the mike and battery pack, which were hidden under 
Mrs. Kennedy* s suit jacket. If a problem were to arise, Collingwood 

explained at the time, "We couldn T t have a technician fiddling with 


the First Lady ? s person." 

President Kennedy f s first press conference of 1962 was being held 
on the same afternoon. Among the issues on which he fielded questions 
were segregation in federally assisted housing, the Berlin Wall, nuclear 
testing, Cuba, and the prospects for war in Southeast Asia. The burden of 
the presidency weighed heavily on him that day. 

Kennedy agreed to make an appearance on the television tour and 

the taping was scheduled to take place immediately after the press 

conference. At about 4:30 he caught up with his wife and the CBS 

production team. During the brief delay needed to position lights and 

cameras in the Treaty Room the President reviewed the gist of his remarks. 

Still in the pi ess conference mode, Kennedy f s answers to Coilingwood f s 


questions were "sharp and pointed." 


After all the taping had been completed, the President and Mrs. 
Kennedy viewed the unedited tapes in the White House theater. "They 
asked me to join them," Collingwood remembered, "but I thought my presence 
might inhibit their discussion of how things had gone, so I begged off." 

Perry Wolff was present at the screening. "I sat right behind the 
two of them," he said of the President and Mrs. Kennedy. fl He was very 
proud of her. They were very cuddly. " Despite the strains their 
marriage was purportedly suffering under, Wolff had no doubt "they 
cared deeply about each other." "I know," he said remembering the 
scene, "because I observed it." 

The President was not happy with the tone of his delivery. He felt 
it needed to be softer. He turned and asked the producer, "Is it poss- 
ible for me to redo it?" The cameras, remembered Wolff with a laugh, 
were scheduled to be in another city the next day to shoot the 
"Pillsbury Bake-Off," but the request from Kennedy was "un re f usable." They 
would, of course, allow the President to rerecord his segment in the 
morning. Mrs. Kennedy could not be there the next day, so Mrs. Perry 
Wolff sat next to Charles Collingwood in order for the President to 
make proper eye contact. His wife f s assignment of looking into the 
eyes of John F. Kennedy, Wolff remembers, did unnerve her slightly. 

With warm sincerity the President commented on the importance of 
preserving t>»e history of the White House, especially for children. 
"I have always felt that American history is a sometimes dull subject. 
There f s so much emphasis on dates." The President could not know how 
quaint and telling his next statement would soon become, "But I think 
if they can come here and see — alive — this building and in a sense 
touch the people who have been here then they f ll go home more interested and 
I think that they f 11 become better Americans and some of them may want to 



someday live here themselves which I think would be good — " and then with 


a chuckle he added the afterthought, "even the girls."" John Kennedy 
would not live to know the monumental impact of the Women T s Movement on 
American life. 

Public anticipation about the event was great. It was not the story 
of the President T s house that compelled viewers, of course. It was the 
possibility his wife would reveal something more about herself during the 
sixty-minutes in which she willingly took her place on America 1 s center 
stage. The cover of TV Guide the week of the broadcast, a close-up shot 
of Mrs. Kennedy with slightly tousled hair and direct gaze, suggested 
the TV tour would be a more intimate, candid affair than it turned out 
to be. 


"A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy" was telecast, 
without commercial interruption, simultaneously on CBS and NBC at 10:00 on Wednesday, February 14. The following Sunday it aired on the ABC 
network at 6:30 p.m. Though the program was completely produced by 
CBS, the other networks contributed to the production cost for the 
privilege of broadcasting the tape. This highly irregular arrangement 
also satisfied the White House tradition of not giving exclusive access 
to any one news organization. 

On the evening of Valentine* s Day the President and Mrs. Kennedy 
had dinner at the White House with Benjamin Bradlee, Washington editor of News- 
week , and his wife Tony. The other two guests were Max Freedman, 
American correspondent of the Manchester Guardian , and Mrs. John Randolph 
Fell, a society hostess from New York. After dinner, the group retired 
to the small sitting room next to the Lincoln Room. In his memoirs 
Conversations with Kennedy , Bradlee recalled, "There had been a lot 



of talk at dinner about how good CBS was, what a good director they 
had in Frank Schaffner (director of the f Tour f ), but ironically the 
president's TV set wouldn't bring in the CBS channel, and we watched 
the show on NBC, and we watched it in virtual silence." 15 

About 46 million other people, three out of every four Americans 
watching TV at ;hat time, were tuned to u The Jackie Kennedy Show. 1,16 
What they saw was an inhibited First Lady and a somewhat fawning network 
correspondent tiptoe through panoply of treasurable historical arti- 
facts. The intriguing substance of the White House Tour was bogged 
down by the weight of the event itself. Mrs. Kennedy's three strands 
of pearls, the simple cut of her neckline, and her low-heeled shoes 
were vivid long after the beautiful paintings of great American artists 
faded from viewers' memories. 

Watching the program all these years later, the awkwardness is 
palpable. The 1962 audience overlooked the program's shortcomings, 
however. Most viewers were just as smitten as the Chicago Daily News 
critic who wrote with unintended hyperbole, "Here was an example of 
television at its best." 

Bradlee remembered, u As soon as the broadcast was over the 
telephone started ringing... 11 One call was from the President's 
sister Eunice Shriver. After speaking with her brother, she asked 
for Jacqueline, "But Jackie shook her head, 11 the evening's guest remembered, 
"and the president said she had gone off to bed — in tears." 

"We teased Kennedy about calling his wife 'Jackie'," Bradlee con- 
tinued, "...and in that quizzical way of his, almost like a child looking 
for approval, he asked us whether we thought 'the first lady' would have 



been more appropriate." How odd his concern seems today in a world in 
which the mass media have put Americans on a first name basis with 
presidential parents, siblings, spouses and progeny — and acquaint us 
with their most personal tribulations. 

The President was still not happy with his part in the program, 
but apparently realized the public relations. value of hi* wife, "Terrific, 1 
he congratulated her on her performance, "can we show it in 1964?"*^ 

The morning after the broadcast, The New York Herald Tribune 
suggested in a front page story that Ars. Kennedy was amenable to 
participating in the television program because of an understanding 
the three networks would contribute handsomely to the Fine Arts 


Committee Fund. The President was reportedly "angered" by the story. 

The monetary incentive theory was denied by Pierre Salinge: and CBS 

Chairman William Paley who called the charge "sheer nonsense." The 

head of ABC News. James Hagerty, however, said that he understood a 

donation to the Fine Arts Committee was "expected to be included in 

the bill for the show," and protested the arrangement, saying, "under 


no conditions will ABC make a donation to a government." Twenty- 
three years after the broadcast Charles Collxngwood took umbrage at 
the question. "I have no idea whether we made a sizeable contribution 
or not. I rather hope we did for it was certainly a worthwhile cause. 
But I can assure you that any such contribution would in no way have 
influenced her decision to agree to the broadcast and participate 
in it." 

"A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy" was an 
international event as well. A brief introduction to the program 
was recorded by the First Lady in French and Spanish for foreign 
distribution. j ^ 




In the early summer of 1962, the chairman of the Federal Communi- 
cations Commission, Newton Minow, sent the following memo to Kennedy's 
special assistant Kenneth P. O'Donnell: 

Some time ago the President asked for a list of 
the countries which broadcast the television program 
(A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy). 
I now have a fairly complete list, which is attached 
herewith. As you can see, the White Hcjyse is becoming 
familiar territory all over the world. 

The attached list was remarkable. Countries that had purchased 
and broadcast the program included Japan, Australia, the United Kingdom, 
Ireland, the Phillippines, Switzerland, Sweden, New Zealand, Puerto 
Rico, Finland, Denmark and Norway. Belgium and Italy had received 
prints and scheduled broadcasts for future dates. Thirty-four other 
countries, including Communist China, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, 
requested permission from the United States Information Agency (USIA). 
to service a print of the show. 

Not everyone was enchanted with the First Lady's performance, 
however. The July 1962 issue of Esouire magazine carried a Norman 
Mailer p- _;ce entitled "An Evening with Jackie Kennedy.' 1 He was not 
afflicted with the generous blindspots of most other critics. 
Rather, the Mailer essay displayed a savage insight that Mrs. Kennedy 
would find hard to forgive. 

"Do you remember the girl with the magnificent sweater who used 
to give the weather reports on television in a swarmy singsong tone?" 
he asked his readers in describing the First Lady's "public voice." He 
had heard better voices "selling gadgets to the grim" in Macy's at 
Christmastime than the "manufactured voice Jackie Kennedy chose to 



arrive at." She walked through the tour, according to Mailer, "like a 
starlet who is utterly, without talent. 11 

"Mrs. Kennedy moved," he wrote, "like a wooden horse." The 
progre> v ave us precisely no sense ol the past," Mailer felt, but "it 
inflicted the past upon us, pummeled us with it, depressed us with 
facts." With paradoxic! compassion, the author concluded that Jacqueline 

Kennedy was ,f a royal phony." "She was trying, I suppose, to be a 


proper First Lady and . was her mistake." 

• Time has not diminished the lure of Mrs. Kennedy in our popular 
imagination or the compulsion by social critics to put the brief era 
into perspective. In Norman Mailer f s 1984 essay "Jackie, the Prisoner 
of Celebrity," h^ muses, " retrospect we can say that once we 
had a romantic heroine and she was married to one of the most handsome 
men in America, and they were President and First Lady, and so our 
dream life thrived." 22 

In a televised address on the evening of October 22, 1962 President 
Kennedy told the American people of the presence of offensive nuclear 
missiles in Cuba and his decision to impose a naval blockade of the island. 
On the very day his most grim announcement was inade, a troupe of comic 
performers, led by impressionist Vaughn Meader, was recording a collection 
of irre' erent sketches in a New York City studic. "The First Family" 
album became a bonafide popular culture phenomenon. Over one million 
copies were sold in the first two weeks of release. "The demand exceeds 
our supply by the thousands," a Miami record store owner told a Time 
magazine reporter. "I don f t mean hundreds, I mean thousands!" 23 



The longest sketch on the album is a seven-minute parody 
entitled "The Tour. 11 A stiff sounding newsman, Charles Collingsworth, 
walks through the White House with a breathy, not too bright First 
Lady. She points out the various paintings on the wall by saying, 
"There's this one and this one and that great big one over there and 
this little teeny one down here." No changes were made in the Blue 
Room she mews, because f, we decided to leave it just the way President 
Blue had it originally. 1 ' 

The satire hitt, hard on one of the program's most vulnerable 
points — the unsubtie way in which Mrs. Kennedy plugged the donations 
of notable antiques and paintings throughout the tour. The audience 
was informed, for instance, a painting of Benjamin Franklin was u a 
gift of Mr. and Mrs. Walter Annenberg of Philadelphia 11 and John 
Trumbull ? s portrait of Alexander Hamilton was' a "gift of Mr. and Mrs. 
Henry Ford of Grosse Pointe, Michigan. 11 On the "First Family" album, 
correspondent Collingsworth notices a good deal of dust on the 
furniture in the Grant Drawing Room. "Yes, 11 the First Lady sighs, 
just as Mrs. Kennedy did in the program, "and that dust was a gift from 
Mrs. B. P. Landon of Wilkes-Barre, Pennsylvania. 11 The studio audience 
is convulsed. Mrs. Kennedy* s personal secretary, Mary Barelli 
Gallagher, recalled "it infuriated her to hear or even see the Vaughn 
Meader record... There were very few things that got Jackie as excited 
as the subject of Vaughn Meader ." 2 * 

The President's sister-in-law Ethel Kennedy came up with her own 
"parody of the White House tour 11 .and presented it to him for his 
forty-sixth birthday in May 1963. It was a scrapbook depicting Hickory 

J 4 


Hill, home of the Robert F. Kennedy family in Virginia, as a "madhouse 
filled with children and dogs and cats and turtles." It "seemed to be," 

wrote Kitty Kelly in her sensational biography Jackie Oh! "his favorite 

„ „26 

Mrs. Kennedy T s tour of the White House is a program that lingers 
in the memory of its viewers because it was a major television event 
of the era In his poignant memoir, Station Identification ; Confessions 
of a Video Kid , author Donald Bowie recalls nis high school Social 
Studies teacher who suffered from "media infection." His condition 
"became noticeably worse on the Sunday in 1962 when Jackie Kennedy f s 
'Tour ^f the White House 1 was aired," wrote Bowie. "The Monday after 
the tour, Mr. Marcus entered the classroom in a near delirium." "Did 
you all see it?" the teacher asked, "Did you all see it?" A cynical 
female classmate who never watched television whispered to Bowie, 
"I don f t know what kind of a house tour that was — to make Mr. Marcus 
so insuffereable. Look at him. Why he f s like a proud father passing 

out cigars. Who ever heard of a reaction like this from just looking 

2 6 

at somebody else's chintzes?" 

Since mid-century a new kind of Americana has flourished. Television 
programming, ostensibly ep-hemeral, preserved on celluloid or magnetic 
tape can reveal, in some measure, the temper of the times. The producer 
of Mrs. Kennedy's tour, Perry Wolff, believes the tone of the show was 
unique to the period. It was created arid produced with "absolutely 
no adverse., ^al position," he says. Mrs. Kennedy's restoration of the 
White House was a project not entirely without controversy, yet not a 
hint of it surfaced in the program. "Especially since Watergate," 
Wolff relfects, "there's just no longer that unquestioning admiration..." 

er|c 7 5 


Charles Co] lingwood looked back at the historical significance 
of the broadcast with greater sentimentality. A young person today, 
born after the death of John Kennedy, could learn, he felt, that f, those 
American Presidents who have a distinctive impact on their times usually 
are catalysts foi a sense of renewal—renewed national pride and a 
sense of tradition. Certainly the rehabilitation of the White House 
was a prime factor in both. 11 "The program, 11 he continued, "should 
help us understand the enormous sense of shock and loss that followed 
the -President 1 s assassination. Here we see the Kennedys in full 
possession of the mystique -hich surrounded them, full o: grace and 
charm, concerned with the full fweep of American history... Rightly 
or wrongly, that is still how many remember them..." 

Those who have assessed the tenures of American First Ladies 
have concluded the ^ontzibu'-ions made by Jacqueline Kennedy were indeed 

significant. While the restored White House stands as an "enduring 


legacy to the American people," the program which officially presented 
it to us, "A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy." remains 
a monochrome memento of the New Frontier... a national souvenir 
evocative and bittersweet. 

// // // 

* ("A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy" is available 
for viewing at the Museum of Broadcasting in New York City, The John 
F. Kennedy Library in Boston, and at the UCLA Television Archives.) 

ERIC . 16 


1. Hugh Sidey, John F. Kennedy, President , (NY: Atheneum, 1963), p. 383. 

2. Eyewitness to History , "Jackie f s Journey," program transcript as 
broadcast over the CBS Television Network, Friday, June 9, 1961, 
10:30-11:00 p.m., DST. 

3. Helen Thomas, Dateline: White House , (NY: Macmillan Publishing Co., 
1975), p. 9. 

4. Stephen Birmingham, Jacqueline Bouvier Kennedy Onassis , (NY: Grosset 
& Dunlap, 1978) , p. 476. 

5. Helen Thomas, Dateline: White House , p. 4. 

6. John H. Davis, The Kennedys: Dynasty and Disaster 1848-1984 , (NY: 
'McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1984), p. 476. 

7. Ibid., p. 475. 

8. Letter, C. Collingwood to M. A. Watson, July 26, 1985. (Unless 
otherwise nofced, all quotations attributed to Charles Collingwood 
are from this correspondence.) 

9. David Halberstam, The Powers That Be , (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1979), 
p. 387. 

10. Telephone interview, Perry Wolff by M. A. Watson, October 2, 1985. 
(Unless otherwise noted, all quotations attributed to Perry Wolff 
are from this conversation.) 

11. Mary Barelli Gallagher, My Life with Jacqueline Kennedy , (NY: 
Papsrback Library, 1969), p. 192. 

12. "The Presidency: Simply Everywhere," Time , February 23, 1962, 
p. 25. 

13. Perry Wolff, A Tour of the White House With Mrs. John F. Kennedy , 
(NY: Dell, 1962), p. 233. 

14. "A Tour of the White House with Mrs. John F. Kennedy," program 
transcript was broadcast over the CBS Television Network, Wednesday, 
February 14, 1962, 10:00-11:00 p.m., EST. 

15. Benjamin C. Bradlee, Conversations With Kennedy , (NY: W. W. Norton 
& Co., 1975), p. 57. 

16. "The White House: That TV Tour," Newsweek , February 26, 1962, p. 23. 

17. Ralph G. Martin, A Hero For Our Time , (NY: Fawcett Crest, 1983), 
p. 368. 

J 7 

18. "White House Tour a Memorable TV Event; Quid Pro Quo Sequel," 
Variety , Wednesday, February 21, 19t2, p. 31. 

19. Ibid. 

20. Memo, N. N. Minow to K. P. O'Donnell, June 26, 1962, State Historical 
Society of Wisconsin, Archives, Minow File, Box 24. 

21. "An Evening With Jackie Kennedy," Norman Mailer, Esquire , July 1962,- 
pp. 57-61. 

22. Norman Mailer, "Jackii, the Prisoner of Celebrity," in Esquire 1 s 
Fifty Who Made the Difference , (NY: Esquire Press, 1984), p . 127. 

23. "The First Family," Time , November 30, 1962, p. 20. 

24. ."The Tour," The First Family Album , (NY: Cadence Records, Inc., 

25. Mary Bare Hi Gallagher, My Life with Jacqueline Kennedy , p. 177. 

26. Kitty Kelly, Jackie Oh ! (Secaucus, NJ: Lyle Ctuart , Inc., 1978), 
p. 127. 

27. Donald Bowie, Station Identification: Confessions of a Video Kid , 
(NY: M. Evans and Company, Inc., 1980), p. 8^>-90. 

28. John H. Davis, The Kennedy f s: Dynasty and Disaster , p. 479.